Total Total 1996 Hit
Over the last 18 years, EPI has closely tracked trends in teacher pay. Over these nearly two decades, a picture of increasingly alarming trends has emerged.1 Simply put, teachers are paid less (in weekly wages and total compensation) than their nonteacher college-educated counterparts, and the situation has worsened considerably over time.
total total 1996 hit
Prior to the pandemic, the long-trending erosion in the relative wages and total compensation of teachers was already a serious concern. The financial penalty that teachers face discourages college students from entering the teaching profession and makes it difficult for school districts to keep current teachers in the classroom. Trends in teacher pay coupled with pandemic challenges may exacerbate annual shortages of regular and substitute teachers.2
We use two sources of data, both from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). We provide a comprehensive discussion of the data and methodologies that produce our teacher weekly wage and total compensation estimates in a prior report (Allegretto and Mishel 2019, Appendix A). Following is a summary of that discussion.
Our findings are presented in four sections. We first present trends in annual average weekly wages (adjusted for inflation) from 1979 through 2021 for teachers and other college graduates. Next, we report annual estimates of the national teacher weekly wage penalty using standard regression techniques to control for systematic differences in age, education, state of residence, and other factors known to affect wage rates. Third, we offer regression-adjusted estimates of the teacher pay gap for each state and for the District of Columbia. Finally, we factor in nonwage benefits to estimate a total compensation penalty that includes wages and benefits at the national level (which is not possible for each state).
In 1979, teachers earned $1,052 per week (in 2021 dollars), which is 22.9% less than the $1,364 earned by other college graduates. The difference in wages between teachers and other college graduates decreased slightly into the mid-1990s, falling to 15.7% in 1996, but then increased considerably during the tight labor markets of the late 1990s into the early 2000s. The wages of nonteacher college graduates jumped by 13.5% from 1996 to 2002 during an unusual time of exceptional wage growth among low-, middle-, and high-wage earners. But inflation-adjusted wages of teachers did not grow strongly during this period, in part because teacher pay is often set by long-term contracts, and public-sector wages are not as volatile (they do not rise and fall as much) as private-sector wages. Teacher weekly wages remained flat in inflation-adjusted terms from 1996 to 2002, increasing just 0.3%, leaving the real average weekly wage of teachers 25.5% less than their college graduate counterparts.
The large wage penalty that men face in the teaching profession goes a long way toward explaining why the gender makeup of the profession has not changed much over the past few decades. The pre-1996 wage penalty for male teachers, compared with other male college graduates, was already large; by 2021, it had grown to a record 35.2%.
This report is the latest in a series that has included two books and numerous reports over the last 18 years. The picture that continues to emerge is one of a long-steep relative erosion of teacher wages. Adding benefits to the picture helps, but the 2021 total compensation gap (14.2%) is the worst we have ever reported, as are the weekly wage gaps.
Total is the debut album by American female R&B trio Total. It was released by Bad Boy Records and Arista Records on January 30, 1996 in the United States. Chiefly produced by Bad Boy head Sean "Puffy" Combs, the album peaked at number 23 on the US Billboard 200 and reached the top five of the US Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums. Total was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) and spawned the hit singles "Can't You See", "No One Else", "Kissin' You" and "Do You Think About Us"/"When Boy Meets Girl".
The four most notable tropical cyclones of the season were hurricanes Bertha, Cesar, Fran, and Hortense. Bertha made landfall as a Category 2 hurricane on the coast of North Carolina, causing a total of 12 deaths and $335 million (1996 USD) in damage. Hurricane Fran made landfall in the same general area a little over a month later as a Category 3 hurricane, causing 37 deaths and $5 billion in damage. Hurricane Cesar developed in the east Caribbean during late-July, struck Nicaragua, then crossed into the Pacific as a tropical storm, at which time it was given the name Douglas. The system produced strong winds and flooding, leading to 113 deaths and $202.96 million in damage. Finally, Hurricane Hortense formed in the east Atlantic during the month of September and crossed Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, causing 39 direct deaths and $158 million in damage. Collectively, the tropical cyclones of the 1996 Atlantic hurricane season caused $6.52 billion in damage and 256 deaths.
In December 1995, CSU predicted that only 8 named storms would form and 5 of those would become hurricanes; no specific number of major hurricanes was given. However, in April 1996, CSU revised their forecast, stating that 11 named storms would develop, with seven of those intensifying into a hurricane, and three reaching major hurricane intensity. In June, CSU predicted 10 named storms, 6 hurricanes, and 2 major hurricanes. The forecast by the WRC in early 1996 was 10 named storms and 6 hurricanes, though there was no prediction on the number of major hurricanes.
Tropical cyclogenesis in the 1996 Atlantic hurricane season began with the development of Tropical Storm Arthur on June 17. In the month of July, two tropical cyclones formed, both of which later attained hurricane status. August was the most active month of the season, with a total of four storms developing in that period of time. The month of August also featured the strongest and costliest tropical cyclones of the season, Hurricane Edouard and Hurricane Fran, respectively. Although September is the climatological peak of hurricane season, only two tropical cyclones developed in that month. Despite this, both reached major hurricane status. Three tropical cyclones formed in October, with one attaining hurricane status. Finally, one tropical cyclone developed in November, Hurricane Marco. The storm lasted 10 days before dissipating on November 26.
As the center of Arthur passed east of Cape Romain, South Carolina, minor increases in surf were reported. Rainfall peaked at 5.85 inches (149 mm) in Georgetown, South Carolina, though because it fell gradually, no significant flooding was reported, other than minor ponding of water on roads. In addition, Arthur also brought precipitation to Georgia and Virginia, though amounts rarely exceeded 3 inches (76 mm). In North Carolina, swells ranged as high as 7 ft (2.1 m). A C-Man station located about 35 mi (56 km) southeast of Cape Fear reported sustained winds of 39 mph (64 km/h) and gusts up to 45 mph (75 km/h). Overall, damage caused by Arthur was minimal, totaling only $1 million.
In the United States Virgin Islands, heavy rainfall and hurricane-force winds damaged about 2,500 homes, of which 43 lost their roofs. Many boats were destroyed. Total damage was estimated near $7.5 million. The storm caused 3 deaths in Puerto Rico. Additionally, damage in Puerto Rico totaled $7.5 million. Two deaths were confirmed in Saint Martin. The storm caused numerous power outages and damaged 10 homes in Antigua and Barbuda. Four deaths occurred in Florida, three of which due to rip currents. North Carolina bore the brunt of the hurricane in the United States. Storm surge destroyed several fishing piers, marinas, and boats. A combination of storm surge and strong winds damaged over 5,000 homes and buildings, with at least 4 destroyed. There were 2 deaths in the state. The remnants brought local flooding and minor wind damage to the Mid-Atlantic, New England, and Atlantic Canada. One surfer died in New Jersey. Overall, the storm caused 12 deaths and about $285 million in damage, primarily in eastern North Carolina.
Edouard approached Nantucket, Massachusetts, but turned to the east before reaching land. On September 3, the storm weakened and became extratropical. It was absorbed by a larger system on September 7. Edouard brought rough seas and gusty winds along the East Coast of the United States from South Carolina northward. Strong waves in New Jersey drowned 2 people. Minor erosion and coastal flooding also occurred in several states, especially in New York and Massachusetts. In the latter, wind gusts up to 90 mph (145 km/h) left two-thirds of Nantucket, most of Cape Cod, and all of Martha's Vineyard without electricity. Gusty winds in Maine left about 1,900 without power in Portland. Damage in the United States totaled about $20 million. In Canada, the storm brought rainfall up to 5.35 inches (136 mm) and gusts to 75 mph (121 km/h). Rough seas disrupted ferry service and caused the closure of several beaches.
The extratropical remnants of Josephine moved along the eastern coast of the United States, producing wind gusts as strong as 77 mph (124 km/h) in St. Mary's County and in Ocean City, Maryland. The winds caused widespread power outages, including 26,000 in Virginia and 31,000 in New Jersey. Heavy rainfall flooded low-lying areas and rivers along the storm's path, including in North Carolina which had previously been affected by hurricanes Bertha and Fran earlier in the year. In the Southeastern United States, the storm contributed to dozens of traffic accidents, which killed a person each in Georgia, North Carolina, and Virginia. Damage throughout the United States totaled about $130 million. Josephine later moved offshore, and after passing southeast of Cape Cod, moved through Atlantic Canada with moderate rainfall and gusty winds. 350c69d7ab