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The authors have studied the SH(sup 2Pisub i)-Ar and SD-Ar radical complexes with FTMW spectroscopy. The complexes were produced in a supersonic free jet by a pulsed discharge of Hsub 2S or Dsub 2S, which was diluted to 0.35% in Ar with a stagnation pressure of 2 atm. R-branch transitions in the lower spin-orbit component (Omega=3/2) for the linear sup 2Pisub i radicals were observed for Jdouble_prime = 3/2 to Jdouble_prime = 15/2 in the 8-26 GHz region. The transitions were split into two parity components owing to the parity doubling. Each parity component was split further due to themore magnetic hyperfine interaction associated with the H/D nucleus. Rotational constants for SH-Ar and SD-Ar were determined to be 1569.656(2) and 1567.707(2)MHz respectively. The value for SH-Ar agrees well with that of a previous LIF study. From the SH/SD data, it was confirmed that the argon atom is located at the hydrogen side of the SH radical. With an assumption that the S-H bond length is equal to that in the monomer, the H-Ar distance is calculated to be 2.900 Angstrom, which is about 0.1 Angstrom longer than that in OH-Ar. The effective Dsub J constants of SH-Ar and SD-Ar were found to have negative values of -58.4(7) and -50.7(6), kHz respectively. less




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Advances in the particle accelerator technology have enabled numerous fundamental discoveries in 20th century physics. Extensive interdisciplinary research has always supported further development of accelerator technology in efforts of reaching each new energy frontier. Accelerating cavities, which are used to transfer energy to accelerated charged particles, have been one of the main focuses of research and development in the particle accelerator field. Over the last fifty years, in the race to break energy barriers, there has been constant improvement of the maximum stable accelerating field achieved in accelerating cavities. Every increase in the maximum attainable accelerating fields allowed for higher energy upgrades of existing accelerators and more compact designs of new accelerators. Each new and improved technology was faced with ever emerging limiting factors. With the standard high accelerating gradients of more than 25 MV/m, free electrons inside the cavities get accelerated by the field, gaining enough energy to produce more electrons in their interactions with the walls of the cavity. The electron production is exponential and the electron energy transfer to the walls of a cavity can trigger detrimental processes, limiting the performance of the cavity. The root cause of the free electron number gain is a phenomenon called Secondary Electron Emission (SEE). Even though the phenomenon has been known and studied over a century, there are still no effective means of controlling it. The ratio between the electrons emitted from the surface and the impacting electrons is defined as the Secondary Electron Yield (SEY). A SEY ratio larger than 1 designates an increase in the total number of electrons. In the design of accelerator cavities, the goal is to reduce the SEY to be as low as possible using any form of surface manipulation. In this dissertation, an experimental setup was developed and used to study the SEY of various sample surfaces that were treated


Advances in the particle accelerator technology have enabled numerous fundamental discoveries in 20th century physics. Extensive interdisciplinary research has always supported further development of accelerator technology in efforts of reaching each new energy frontier. Accelerating cavities, which are used to transfer energy to accelerated charged particles, have been one of the main focuses of research and development in the particle accelerator field. Over the last fifty years, in the race to break energy barriers, there has been constant improvement of the maximum stable accelerating field achieved in accelerating cavities. Every increase in the maximum attainable accelerating fields allowed for highermore energy upgrades of existing accelerators and more compact designs of new accelerators. Each new and improved technology was faced with ever emerging limiting factors. With the standard high accelerating gradients of more than 25 MV/m, free electrons inside the cavities get accelerated by the field, gaining enough energy to produce more electrons in their interactions with the walls of the cavity. The electron production is exponential and the electron energy transfer to the walls of a cavity can trigger detrimental processes, limiting the performance of the cavity. The root cause of the free electron number gain is a phenomenon called Secondary Electron Emission (SEE). Even though the phenomenon has been known and studied over a century, there are still no effective means of controlling it. The ratio between the electrons emitted from the surface and the impacting electrons is defined as the Secondary Electron Yield (SEY). A SEY ratio larger than 1 designates an increase in the total number of electrons. In the design of accelerator cavities, the goal is to reduce the SEY to be as low as possible using any form of surface manipulation. In this dissertation, an experimental setup was developed and used to study the SEY of various sample surfaces that were 350c69d7ab


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